A novel strain of endophytic Streptomyces for the biocontrol of strawberry anthracnose caused by Glomerella cingulata.

Anthracnose caused by Glomerella cingulata is one of the most devastating diseases of strawberry in Japan, particularly during its nursery period in the summer. In this study, we aimed to isolate and screen endophytic actinobacteria, to identify potential biocontrol agents capable of suppressing strawberry anthracnose.

A total of 226 actinobacteria were successfully isolated from surface-sterilized strawberry tissues. In the first screening, 217 out of 226 actinobacteria isolates were studied for their suppression effect on strawberry anthracnose using a detached leaflet assay. It was discovered that isolates MBFA-172 and MBFA-227 markedly suppressed the development of anthracnose lesions.

The efficacy of both isolates was then tested on two-month-old strawberry plug seedlings in a controlled environmental chamber. It was found that isolate MBFA-172 provided consistent disease suppression and was thus selected as a final candidate for further evaluation in a glasshouse experiment. Results showed that the severity as well as incidence rate of strawberry anthracnose was significantly reduced by treatment with isolate MBFA-172 compared with that of untreated control.

Accordingly, the disease control efficacy provided by MBFA-172 was statistically comparable to the chemical fungicide propineb. A re-isolation experiment using a spontaneous thiostrepton-resistant mutated strain of isolate MBFA-172 revealed that it efficiently colonized the above-ground tissues of strawberry plants for at least three weeks after spray treatment.

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Using cultural, morphological, and physiological tests combined with 16S rRNA-based molecular analysis, MBFA-172 was identified as a moderately thermophilic Streptomyces thermocarboxydus-related species. Upon review, our results strongly indicated that MBFA-172 is a promising biocontrol agent for strawberry anthracnose.